Research Reports and STAA
- 1 Definition of ORD Research Reports and Procedure for Submission for Science and Technological Achievement Awards (STAA) (proposed)
- 1.1 1. EPA investigator contributes to a manuscript to be considered for publication as an ORD Research Report.
- 1.2 2. The manuscript is peer reviewed.
- 1.3 3. The manuscript is published as an ORD Research Report.
- 1.4 4. The ORD Research Report is nominated for STAA.
- 1.5 5. Example ORD Research Reports and their "mock" STAA nominations.
Definition of ORD Research Reports and Procedure for Submission for Science and Technological Achievement Awards (STAA) (proposed)
1. EPA investigator contributes to a manuscript to be considered for publication as an ORD Research Report.
What is an ORD Research Report?
(from EPA/600/K-95/002, August 1995 aka the Handbook)
The research report is a book-length presentation of the best of EPA/ORD’s research findings. These reports are normally the most authoritative results of a research project on a critical area of interest in which the Agency is involved. Note that this standard for science and technology reporting should meet the STAA criteria defined below in Section 4. The ORD Research Report is different from other ORD reports: Project Report, Project Summary, Computer Manual, Internal Report. See the Handbook for descriptions.
Present research reports in classic textbook style—clear, concise prose. Follow “Report Specifications” in Appendix B (of the Handbook).
A research report will fit into one of two broad categories: investigative or expository.
In a standard investigative report, results and conclusions, the evidence to support them, and the interpretation of that evidence are the most important inclusions. The background of the project and the methods used should support the results and recommendations. Structure the body of an investigative report as follows:
D. Methods and materials
E. Results and discussion
In the introduction, focus on the hypothesis or problem that the study tests. Place the conclusions and recommendations before other matter in the body of an investigative report because this allows the reader ready access to the full scope of the project. Methods, results, and discussion may be interwoven or addressed separately, as logic dictates.
An expository report sheds additional light on a topic or an area of high interest about which information is lacking. It is more informal and discursive in nature than an investigative report in the sense that its structure is not bound by the scientific method. Its organization is therefore looser than that of the investigative report; however, where possible, use the same format elements as the investigative report.
Weight the text of a research report in favor of explanatory copy, and do not include large volumes of backup and unedited data, repeatedly used figures of government or other organizational forms, or verbatim reprints from or transcripts of other printed information sources (e.g., the Federal Register). These inclusions would detract from the classic format of the book, run up the cost excessively, and are more appropriately referenced as secondary sources than printed. Footnote or reference all background materials where appropriate to enable the reader to locate them in the library, through NTIS, or through the appropriate information databases.
The effective use of appropriate referencing and footnoting techniques is absolutely necessary to increase the credibility of the document and fulfill the purpose of the presentation. Careful documentation shows that a research project has been thoroughly investigated. Referencing systems vary among scientific disciplines. Whatever system you use, be consistent and make each reference complete.
2. The manuscript is peer reviewed.
The principle investigator (author) will initiate the review process by submitting the manuscript to his/her Branch Chief with a request for peer review. The Branch Chief, or Division designee, will submit the manuscript for a minimum two external reviews and one internal editorial and policy review, monitor the progress of the reviews, and return the peer reviewer responses to the author. The external reviewers will have the option to remain anonymous. The reviewers will be given the definition of an ORD Research Report and asked whether the manuscript meets the standard "as is", "with minor modification", "with major modification", or would be better published in another form of EPA report: e.g., Project Report, User Guide, Internal Report, etc. The author will be required to provide documentation of responses to the review comments to the satisfaction of the Division Director.
3. The manuscript is published as an ORD Research Report.
See the Handbook for guidance on printing. The published report will be available to the public on an EPA server for download as PDF.
4. The ORD Research Report is nominated for STAA.
The Research Report will be subjected to the same evaluation guidelines as journal articles and book chapters:
ORD Research Reports are eligle for STAA nominations within the same categories and subject to the same evaluation guidelines as journal articles and book chapters. To be eligible, the nominated ORD Research Report must be recognized as a major achievement within its field of study. Categories include: Control Systems and Technology; Ecological Research; Health Effects Research and Human Health Risk Assessment; Monitoring and Measurement Methods; Transport and Fate; Review Articles; Risk Management and Ecosystem Restoration; Integrated Risk Assessment; Social Sciences; Environmental Futures and Environmental Statistics.
- The extent to which the work reported in the nominated paper resulted in either new or significantly revised knowledge. The accomplishment should represent an important advancement of scientific knowledge or technology relevant to environmental issues.
- The degree to which the accomplishment is a product of the originality, creativeness, initiative, and problem-solving ability of the researchers as well as the level of effort required to produce the results.
- The extent to which environmental protection has been strengthened or improved, whether of local, national, or international importance.
- The extent of the beneficial impact of the accomplishment and the degree to which the accomplishment has been favorably recognized from outside EPA.
- The nature and extent of peer review, including stature and quality of the peer-reviewed journal or the publisher of a book for a review chapter published therein.
The nomination will need to demonstrate impact.
Impact of a Research Report may be demonstrated by documenting citations (e.g., Google Scholar) and web-downloads. Examples are shown below.
5. Example ORD Research Reports and their "mock" STAA nominations.
Example of an investigative ORD Research Report.
Weinberg, H.S., S.W. Krasner, S.D. Richardson, and A.D. Thruston, Jr. 2002. The Occurrence of Disinfection By-Products (DBPs) of Health Concern in Drinking Water: Results of a Nationwide DBP Occurrence Study, EPA/600/R-02/068, citation analysis.
Example of an expository ORD Research Report with focus on field methods.
Example of an expository ORD Research Report with focus on computer modeling methods.
Kraemer, S.R., et al., 2007. Working with WhAEM2000: Capture Zone Delineation for a City Wellfield in a Valley Fill Glacial Outwash Aquifer Supporting Wellhead Protection, EPA/600/R-05/151,"mock" nomination form.